Purpose: To review the literature on the adjuvant use of mitomycin C (MMC) during dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in adults with primary nasolacrimal duct obstructions (NLDOs) to determine the efficacy in improving functional and anatomic outcomes with an acceptable level of risk.
Methods: A literature search conducted in November 2020 and updated in November 2022 yielded 137 articles. Twenty-four articles met the inclusion criteria and were rated for level of evidence by the panel methodologist. Inclusion criteria required controlled studies on the effect of MMC on outcomes of external, endoscopic endonasal, or diode laser-assisted transcanalicular DCR in adults with primary acquired nasolacrimal obstruction with 6 months minimum follow-up and at least 10 participants.
Results: Six of the 24 articles were rated level I evidence, 15 level II , and 3 level III. In primary external DCR, MMC significantly improved functional outcomes in 3 of 9 series. In primary endoscopic endonasal DCR, MMC significantly improved functional outcomes in 1 of 9 series. In revision endoscopic endonasal DCR, MMC significantly improved functional success in 1 of 3 series. The use of MMC did not improve outcomes statistically in any diode laser-assisted transcanalicular DCR studies. Concentrations of MMC ranged from 0.05 to 1 mg/ml, with 0.2 mg/ml used most frequently in 12 series, with duration of application ranging from 2 to 30 minutes. Ostium size was significantly larger in MMC groups than in control groups at 6 months after surgery in 4 of 5 reporting studies. However, these larger ostia did not confer higher functional success rates. Reporting of adverse events related to MMC were rare, with delayed cutaneous wound healing reported in 1 of 750 patients.
Conclusions: Intraoperative use of MMC in external and endoscopic endonasal DCR has been shown to improve functional and anatomic outcomes compared with controls in some series, but there is no agreement on the recommended concentration or application time for MMC in DCR. The data support that MMC use can result in a larger ostium size, decreased granulation tissue formation, and a decreased number of postoperative nasal debridements compared with controls, but this does not translate into improved functional success.
Financial disclosure(s): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found in the Footnotes and Disclosures at the end of this article.
Keywords: dacryocystorhinostomy; endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy; lacrimal drainage system; mitomycin; nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
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