Immunophenotypic correlates of sustained MRD negativity in patients with multiple myeloma

Nat Commun. 2023 Sep 2;14(1):5335. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-40966-8.


The role of the immune microenvironment in maintaining disease remission in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) is not well understood. In this study, we comprehensively profile the immune system in patients with newly diagnosed MM receiving continuous lenalidomide maintenance therapy with the aim of discovering correlates of long-term treatment response. Leveraging single-cell RNA sequencing and T cell receptor β sequencing of the peripheral blood and CyTOF mass cytometry of the bone marrow, we longitudinally characterize the immune landscape in 23 patients before and one year after lenalidomide exposure. We compare patients achieving sustained minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity to patients who never achieved or were unable to maintain MRD negativity. We observe that the composition of the immune microenvironment in both the blood and the marrow varied substantially according to both MRD negative status and history of autologous stem cell transplant, supporting the hypothesis that the immune microenvironment influences the depth and duration of treatment response.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Lenalidomide
  • Multiple Myeloma* / drug therapy
  • Patients
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta
  • Tumor Microenvironment


  • Lenalidomide
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta