Uterine Sarcoma With EML4::NTRK3 Fusion: A Spectrum of Mesenchymal Neoplasms Harboring Actionable Gene Fusions

Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2023 Aug 14. doi: 10.1097/PGP.0000000000000957. Online ahead of print.


NTRK gene fusions are part of a paradigm shift in oncology, arising as one of the main genomic alterations with actionability in the so-called "agnostic setting." In gynecologic pathology, the recent description of uterine sarcoma resembling fibrosarcoma and with NTRK rearrangements (NTRK-rearranged uterine sarcoma) highlights the importance of recognizing clinicopathological cues that can lead to genomic profiling. Herein, we report the case of a 43-year-old woman presenting with vaginal bleeding and pelvic mass. Histopathology of the tumor showed moderately atypical spindle cells arranged in long fascicles reminiscent of fibrosarcoma, along with immunohistochemical positivity for S100, CD34, and pan-tropomyosin receptor kinase. This prompted RNA-sequencing and the finding of a rare EML4::NTRK3 fusion. Clinical, histologic, and molecular findings are described, in addition to discussions regarding differential diagnoses and possible implications of the findings in clinical practice.