Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) account for the largest bulk of deaths worldwide, posing a massive burden on societies and the global healthcare system. Besides, the incidence and prevalence of these diseases are on the rise, demanding imminent action to revert this trend. Cardiovascular pathogenesis harbors a variety of molecular and cellular mechanisms among which dysregulated metabolism is of significant importance and may even proceed other mechanisms. The healthy heart metabolism primarily relies on fatty acids for the ultimate production of energy through oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Other metabolites such as glucose, amino acids, and ketone bodies come next. Under pathological conditions, there is a shift in metabolic pathways and the preference of metabolites, termed metabolic remodeling or reprogramming. In this review, we aim to summarize cardiovascular metabolism and remodeling in different subsets of CVD to come up with a new paradigm for understanding and treatment of these diseases.
Keywords: Branched-chain amino acids; Cardiac metabolism; Cardiovascular diseases; Fatty acids; Glucose; Ketone bodies; Metabolic reprogramming.
© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.