Eighty-seven patients with neoplasm (57 cases), pancreatitis (28 cases), or benign biliary obstruction (2 cases) were treated with pyloric preserving pancreatectomy with two postoperative deaths, neither due to abdominal complications. About 50% of patients had delay in recovery of gastrointestinal function. Six and seven patients had clinically significant biliary and pancreatic fistulas, respectively, with some patients having both. Complications required 16 reoperations. Marginal ulcer was suggested by endoscopy or barium study in five patients, three of whom were successfully managed by a medical regimen. In the other two patients, exploration failed to demonstrate an ulcer or jejunitis. In most patients, long-term gastrointestinal function was judged to be excellent based on weight gain and lack of digestive symptoms. Pyloric function and gastric motility were evaluated by abdominal scanning using indium 111 and technetium 99m. Gastric emptying of liquids and solids was normal. Estimations of enterogastric reflux showed a moderate difference between normal subjects and pancreatectomy patients. Cancer-free survival was comparable to that after the standard Whipple procedure.