Oral-gut axis as a novel biological mechanism linking periodontal disease and systemic diseases: A review

Jpn Dent Sci Rev. 2023 Dec:59:273-280. doi: 10.1016/j.jdsr.2023.08.003. Epub 2023 Aug 28.


Substantial evidence suggests that periodontal disease increases the risk of developing and progressing extraoral manifestations such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The most probable causative mechanism behind this is the influx of bacteria and/or bacterial products (endotoxin) and inflammatory cytokines into the systemic circulation originating from inflamed periodontal tissues. However, recent studies have revealed that oral bacteria, especially periodontopathic bacteria, play a role in inducing dysbiosis of the gut microbiota resulting induction of gut dysbiosis-related pathology associated with systemic diseases. Conversely, the disruption of gut microbiota has been shown to have a negative impact on the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Based on our study findings and the available literature, this review presents an overview of the relationship between periodontal disease and systemic health, highlighting the mouth-gut connection.

Keywords: Gut microbiota; Oral microbiota; Periodontitis; Periodontopathic bacteria; Systemic diseases.

Publication types

  • Review