COVID-19: An Overview of SARS-CoV-2 Variants-The Current Vaccines and Drug Development

Biomed Res Int. 2023 Aug 29:2023:1879554. doi: 10.1155/2023/1879554. eCollection 2023.


The world is presently in crisis facing an outbreak of a health-threatening microorganism known as COVID-19, responsible for causing uncommon viral pneumonia in humans. The virus was first reported in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019, and it quickly became a global concern due to the pandemic. Challenges in this regard have been compounded by the emergence of several variants such as B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P1, and B.1.617, which show an increase in transmission power and resistance to therapies and vaccines. Ongoing researches are focused on developing and manufacturing standard treatment strategies and effective vaccines to control the pandemic. Despite developing several vaccines such as Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other vaccines in phase 4 clinical trials, preventive measures are mandatory to control the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, based on the latest findings, we will discuss different types of drugs as therapeutic options and confirmed or developing vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2. We also discuss in detail the challenges posed by the variants and their effect on therapeutic and preventive interventions.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Drug Development
  • Humans
  • Pandemics / prevention & control
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • United States
  • Vaccines*


  • Vaccines

Supplementary concepts

  • SARS-CoV-2 variants