The Challenge of Graft Nephrectomy after Transplant Tourism

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2022 Aug;33(Supplement):S138-S146. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.384186.


The morbidity and mortality rates of transplant nephrectomy are closely related to the indications of nephrectomy. This study evaluates the indications, etiology, and complications of graft nephrectomies for commercial kidney transplantation (CKT). Data were analyzed retrospectively for graft nephrectomies for CKT from January 2009 to December 2017 at the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Four hundred and three patients received CKT and 34 patients required a nephrectomy. Twenty-five patients had a nephrectomy within 10 weeks of CKT in the early group, and nine patients in the late group had the graft removed later than 10 weeks. Indications for nephrectomy in the early group were acute bleeding, infarcted kidney, and pyonephrosis in 7, 11, and 7 patients, respectively; in the late group, the indications were: pain, hematuria, fever, hypertension, and infection. Overall, seven patients had major blood loss, and those patients who had a pseudoaneurysm had tissue cultures that were positive for the fungus. Postoperative complications occurred in 26 patients. There was acute bleeding in three patients from the external iliac artery at the site of the previous anastomosis, and, in all three cases, the external iliac artery was ligated. There were 12 major wound infections, and three patients died from overwhelming sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Commercial transplants carry a high risk of immunological, vascular, and infectious complications, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality.

MeSH terms

  • Aneurysm, False*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Nephrectomy / adverse effects
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tourism