Intrarenal Venous Flow Pattern Changes Do Relate With Renal Function Alterations in Acute Heart Failure

JACC Heart Fail. 2023 Aug 22:S2213-1779(23)00411-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2023.07.015. Online ahead of print.


Background: There is scarce evidence supporting the clinical utility of congestive intrarenal venous flow (IRVF) patterns in patients with acute heart failure.

Objectives: This study aims to: 1) investigate the association between IRVF patterns and the odds of worsening renal function (WRF); 2) track the longitudinal changes of serum creatinine (sCr) across IRVF at predetermined points and its association with decongestion; and 3) explore the relationship between IRVF/WRF categories and patient outcomes.

Methods: IRVF was assessed at baseline (pre-decongestive therapy), 72 hours, and 30 and 90 days postdischarge. Changes in sCr trajectories across dynamic IRVF variations and parameters of decongestion were assessed using linear mixed effect models. The association between IRVF/WRF categories and outcomes was evaluated using univariable/multivariable models.

Results: In this prospective, multicenter study with 188 participants, discontinuous IRVF patterns indicated higher odds of WRF (OR: 3.90 [95% CI: 1.24-12.20]; P = 0.020 at 72 hours; and OR: 5.76 [95% CI: 1.67-19.86]; P = 0.006 at 30 days) and an increase in sCr (Δ-72 hours 0.14 mg/dL [95% CI: 0.06-0.22]; P = 0.001; Δ-discharge 0.13 mg/dL [95% CI: 0.03-0.23]; P = 0.007). However, the diuretic response and decongestion significantly influenced the magnitude of these changes. Patients exhibiting both WRF and discontinuous IRVF at 30 days experienced an increased hazard of adverse events (HR: 5.96 [95% CI: 2.63-13.52]; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Discontinuous IRVF identifies patients with higher odds of WRF during admission and postdischarge periods. Nonetheless, adequate diuretic response and decongestion could modify this association. Patients showing both WRF and discontinuous IRVF at 30 days had increased rates of adverse events.

Keywords: acute heart failure; intrarenal venous flow; renal congestion; renal function trajectory.