Lobular neoplasia (LN) is a histopathologic entity that encompasses both lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH). Management of LN is known to be variable and institutionally dependent. The variability in approach after a diagnosis of LN at percutaneous breast biopsy derives in part from heterogeneity in the literature, resulting in a range of reported upgrade rates to malignancy after initial identification at percutaneous biopsy, and also from historical shifts in understanding of the natural history of LN. It has become increasingly recognized that not all LN is the same and that distinct variants of LN such as pleomorphic LCIS and florid LCIS have distinct natural histories and distinct likelihoods of upgrade to malignancy. In addition, it is also increasingly understood that appropriate management of LN relies on scrupulous radiologic-pathologic correlation. This review details the imaging features and histopathologic nature of ALH, classic-type LCIS, and the LCIS variants; addresses changes in the historical understanding of this entity contributing to confusion regarding its management; and discusses the importance of performing radiologic-pathologic correlation after percutaneous biopsy to help guide appropriate management steps when LN is encountered. In addition to the short-term implications of an LN diagnosis in terms of upgrade and surgical outcomes, the long-term implications of an LN diagnosis regarding risk of developing a later breast cancer are examined. ©RSNA, 2023 Quiz questions for this article are available through the Online Learning Center.