High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,X,+mar at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with positive non-invasive prenatal testing for Turner syndrome, normal male external genitalia and positive SRY in the fetus, a favorable fetal outcome, postnatal decrease of the 45,X cell line and cytogenetic discrepancy in various tissues

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2023 Sep;62(5):749-753. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2023.07.020.

Abstract

Objective: We present high-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,X,+mar at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with positive non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Turner syndrome, normal male external genitalia and positive SRY in the fetus, a favorable fetal outcome, postnatal decrease of the 45,X cell line and cytogenetic discrepancy in various tissues.

Case report: A 35-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of positive NIPT for Turner syndrome (Z score = -11.72 for X chromosome) at 10 weeks of gestation. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[13]/46,X,+mar[8]. Simultaneous molecular analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the results of arr (X) × 1, (Yp) × 0-1 (0.63), (Yq) × 0, (1-22) × 2 in array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and rsa(X) × 1, Yp11.31 × 0-1, Yq11.21 × 0, (13, 18, 21) × 2 in multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The parental karyotypes were normal. Prenatal ultrasound revealed normal male external genitalia. She was referred for genetic counseling, and continuing pregnancy was advised. A 2875-g male baby was delivered at 38 weeks of gestation with normal male external genitalia. The karyotypes of cord blood, umbilical cord and placenta were 46,X,+mar[27]/45,X[13], 46,X,+mar[24]/45,X[16] and 45,X[22]/46,X,+mar[18], respectively. SRY testing on cord blood revealed a positive result. When follow-up at age two months, the neonate was normal in development. The karyotype of peripheral blood was 46,X,+mar[25]/45,X[13]/46,X,idic r(Y) [2]. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on 103 buccal mucosal cells using Yp11.2-specific probe RP11-119E4 and Xp22.31-specific probe RP11-143E20 showed that 90 cells (90/103 = 87%) had double Yp signals, 3 cells (3/103 = 3%) had single Yp signal and 10 cells (10/103 = 10%) had no Yp signal.

Conclusion: High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,X,+mar at amniocentesis with positive Yp and SRY can be associated with a favorable fetal outcome, postnatal decrease of the 45,X cell line and cytogenetic discrepancy in various tissues.

Keywords: 45,X/46,X,+mar; 45,X/46,X,del(Yq11.2); Amniocentesis; NIPT; Turner syndrome.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Amniocentesis
  • Cell Line
  • Comparative Genomic Hybridization
  • Female
  • Fetus
  • Genitalia
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Karyotyping
  • Male
  • Mosaicism*
  • Pregnancy
  • Turner Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Turner Syndrome* / genetics