Gynecological carcinosarcomas: Overview and future perspectives

Bull Cancer. 2023 Nov;110(11):1215-1226. doi: 10.1016/j.bulcan.2023.07.005. Epub 2023 Sep 9.


Gynecologic carcinosarcoma (CS) are rare and aggressive tumors composed of high-grade carcinoma and sarcoma. Carcinosarcoma account for less than 5% of uterine and ovarian carcinoma and patients have poor outcome with a 5-year overall survival of less than 30%. In early-stage setting, the treatment mainstay is surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy in uterine (UCS) and ovarian CS (OCS), respectively. In metastatic or advanced stage disease, chemotherapy is the rule with a lower response rate and poorer prognosis compared to other high-grade carcinomas. Although very few treatment options are available, CS are often excluded from the clinical trials precluding therapeutic improvement. However, recent molecular advances are paving the way for new therapeutic strategies. In the current proposal, we extensively review the uterine and ovarian carcinosarcomas including epidemiology, pathology, genomic landscape, as well as current therapies and future perspectives.

Keywords: Carcinosarcoma; Molecular landscape; Rare gynecological tumors; Systemic therapy.

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial / drug therapy
  • Carcinosarcoma* / genetics
  • Carcinosarcoma* / therapy
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ovarian Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Uterine Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Uterine Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Uterine Neoplasms* / therapy