Association of Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19 vaccination

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2023 Jan-Dec:37:3946320231199349. doi: 10.1177/03946320231199349.

Abstract

Background: Among the various side-effects of COVID-19 vaccinations, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has been found to have some interesting association with the vaccinations. This paper mainly focuses on exploring different associations between COVID-19 vaccination and GBS.Method: A systematic search was conducted on electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, and Embase for case reports published until July 2022. A total of 42 case reports involving 67 individuals from 16 different countries were documented. Reports were analyzed to identify presenting symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and pathophysiological mechanisms related to the relevant issues.Results: The studies included a diverse range of individuals with ages ranging from 13 to 87 years, with an average age of 51.66 years and a male predominance. The average time between vaccination and symptom onset was 12.67 days. Prominent clinical features observed in the case reports included back pain, facial diplegia, weakness, and paresthesia. Diagnostic studies primarily involved cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and electromagnetic studies. A key diagnostic clue was the presence of albuminocytological dissociation in CSF. Available treatment options consisted of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), plasmapheresis, and steroids.Conclusion: This review highlights the diverse and clinically relevant associations between COVID-19 vaccination and GBS. The findings underscore the importance of conducting further studies to explore the causative links in this correlation and gain a better understanding of the relationship.

Keywords: COVID-19; Guillain–Barré syndrome; vaccine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 Vaccines / adverse effects
  • COVID-19* / complications
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Female
  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome* / etiology
  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Vaccination / adverse effects

Substances

  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous