A Multi-Enzyme Cascade Response for the Colorimetric Recognition of Organophosphorus Pesticides Utilizing Core-Shell Pd@Pt Nanoparticles with High Peroxidase-like Activity

Foods. 2023 Sep 4;12(17):3319. doi: 10.3390/foods12173319.

Abstract

In modern agricultural practices, organophosphorus pesticides or insecticides (OPs) are regularly used to restrain pests. Their limits are closely monitored since their residual hinders the capability of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and brings out a threatening accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), which affects human well-being. Therefore, spotting OPs in food and the environment is compulsory to prevent human health. Several techniques are available to identify OPs but encounter shortcomings like time-consuming, operating costs, and slow results achievement, which calls for further solutions. Herein, we present a rapid colorimetric sensor for quantifying OPs in foods using TMB as a substrate, a multi-enzyme cascade system, and the synergistic property of core-shell Palladinum@Platinum (Pd@Pt) nanoparticles. The multi-enzyme cascade response framework is a straightforward and effective strategy for OPs recognition and can resolve the previously mentioned concerns. Numerous OPs, including Carbofuran, Malathion, Parathion, Phoxim, Rojor, and Phosmet, were successfully quantified at different concentrations. The cascade method established using Pd@Pt had a simple and easy operation, a lower detection limit range of (1-2.5 ng/mL), and a short detection time of about 50 min. With an R2 value of over 0.93, OPs showed a linear range of 10-200 ng/mL, portraying its achievement in quantifying pesticide residue. Lastly, the approach was utilized in food samples and recovered more than 80% of the residual OPs.

Keywords: Pd@Pt nanoparticles; acetylcholinesterase; colorimetric detection; multi-enzyme cascade; organophosphorus pesticides.