The Usefulness of Cellular Immune Inflammation Markers and Ultrasound Evaluation in the Assessment of Disease Activity in Patients with Spondyloarthritis

J Clin Med. 2023 Aug 23;12(17):5463. doi: 10.3390/jcm12175463.


Background: The systemic inflammation response index (SIRI) and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) have been introduced as inflammatory markers and predictors of poor prognosis in cancer and cardiovascular diseases. An appropriate evaluation of disease activity in spondyloarthritis (SpA) might be challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of cellular immune inflammation markers and ultrasound (US) evaluation of entheses and joints in the assessment of disease activity in SpA patients.

Methods: This cross-sectional study involved patients with SpA (62 axial SpA, 38 peripheral SpA, pSpA). The clinical data of both tender, swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, white blood cell counts, and disease activity using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and Disease Activity Index for Psoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA), were recorded. The SIRI, SII, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) were calculated. US examination was performed (22 small joints, Achilles tendon, and plantar aponeurosis for enthesitis).

Results: The SII, SIRI, NLR, and PLR were higher, and LMR was lower in patients with high disease activity (BASDAI > 4). Higher SII was observed in pSpA patients with moderate/high disease activity (DAPSA > 14). The SIRI was correlated with clinical and laboratory parameters of disease activity. The SII was correlated with US parameters in pSpA. Higher SII and NLR values were found in patients with signs of activity compared with no activity in the US of peripheral joints. There were no associations with US changes in entheses.

Conclusions: The results of this study point to the value of SIRI and SII as biomarkers of disease activity in patients with SpA. The SII was associated with synovitis in the US of the peripheral joints.

Keywords: cellular immune inflammation markers; spondyloarthritis; ultrasound examination.