New Effective Intraoperative Techniques for the Prevention of Coronal Imbalance after Circumferential Minimally Invasive Correction Surgery for Adult Spinal Deformity

J Clin Med. 2023 Aug 31;12(17):5670. doi: 10.3390/jcm12175670.


This study aimed to devise measures and investigate their effect on coronal imbalance (CI) after circumferential minimally invasive correction surgery (CMIS) with lateral lumbar interbody fusion and percutaneous pedicle screw for adult spinal deformity (ASD). A total of 115 patients with ASD who underwent CMIS from the lower thoracic spine to the ilium were included. Patients were stratified based on the distance between the spinous process of the upper instrumented vertebra and central sacrum vertical line (UIV-CSVL) after the first intraoperative rod application into groups P (UIV-CSVL > 10 mm, n = 50) and G (UIV-CSVL < 10 mm, n = 65). Measures to correct postoperative CI introduced during surgery, preoperative and postoperative UIV-CSVL, and changes in UIV-CSVL after various measures (ΔUIV-CSVL) were investigated in group P. Rod rotation (RR), S2 alar-iliac screw distraction (SD), and kickstand-rod (KR) technique were performed in group P. Group P was further divided into group RR (n = 38), group SD (RR and SD) (n = 7), and group KR (RR and KR) (n = 5); the ΔUIV-CSVLs were 13.9 mm, 20.1 mm, and 24.4 mm in these three groups, respectively. Postoperative C7-CSVL < 10 mm was achieved in all three correction groups. In conclusion, our measures enabled sufficient correction of the UIV-CSVL and are useful for preventing CI after CMIS for ASD.

Keywords: adult spinal deformity; circumferential minimally invasive correction surgery; coronal imbalance; kickstand rod technique; rod rotation.

Grants and funding

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.