Gout therapeutics and drug delivery

J Control Release. 2023 Oct:362:728-754. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2023.09.011. Epub 2023 Sep 21.


Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis caused by persistently elevated uric acid levels. With the improvement of people's living standards, the consumption of processed food and the widespread use of drugs that induce elevated uric acid, gout rates are increasing, seriously affecting the human quality of life, and becoming a burden to health systems worldwide. Since the pathological mechanism of gout has been elucidated, there are relatively effective drug treatments in clinical practice. However, due to (bio)pharmaceutical shortcomings of these drugs, such as poor chemical stability and limited ability to target the pathophysiological pathways, traditional drug treatment strategies show low efficacy and safety. In this scenario, drug delivery systems (DDS) design that overcome these drawbacks is urgently called for. In this review, we initially describe the pathological features, the therapeutic targets, and the drugs currently in clinical use and under investigation to treat gout. We also comprehensively summarize recent research efforts utilizing lipid, polymeric and inorganic carriers to develop advanced DDS for improved gout management and therapy.

Keywords: Advanced therapeutics; Drug delivery systems; Gout; Hyperuricemia; Inorganic carriers; Lipid carriers; Nanoparticles; Polymeric carriers.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Drug Delivery Systems / adverse effects
  • Gout* / complications
  • Gout* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Hyperuricemia* / drug therapy
  • Quality of Life
  • Uric Acid / metabolism


  • Uric Acid