Observations of interventricular septal behavior during left bundle branch pacing

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2023 Nov;34(11):2246-2254. doi: 10.1111/jce.16057. Epub 2023 Sep 11.


Introduction: Left bundle branch pacing (LBBP) involves the deployment of the lead deep inside the septum. Penetration of the septum by the lead depends on the texture of the septum, rapidity of rotations, operator experience, and implantation tools.

Objectives: The aim of our study was to assess the behavior of the lumenless lead during rapid rotations and the physiological property of the interventricular septum(IVS) during LBBP.

Methods: Patients undergoing LBBP between January 2021 and December 2022 were retrospectively included in the study.

Results: Among 255 attempted patients, 20 (7.9%) had procedural failure(no LBB capture-four, inability to penetrate septum-seven, and dislodgements after sheath removal-nine). Septal penetration achieved in 248/255 patients (97.2%). Lead movement inside the IVS was assessed by lead traverse time. Based on the behavior of the IVS (n = 255), three different responses were noted. Type-I response(normal/firm septum) in 93.7% (n = 239) characterized by constant and progressive movement of lead. Neither perforation nor further change in premature-ventricular-complex morphology beyond M-beat were observed despite additional few unintentional rotations indicating the protective mechanism of LV-endocardium. Type-II response(soft/cheesy septum) in 3.5% (n = 9) characterized by hyper-movement of lead without resistance due to altered texture of septum and poor LV subendocardial barrier resulting in perforation. No patients in this group had LV dysfunction or associated coronary artery disease. In type-III response, seen in 2.8% (n = 7), lead could not be penetrated due to scar in IVS.

Conclusion: Three different patterns of responses were observed during LBBP. The most distinct type-ll response was associated with soft/cheesy septum with hyper-movement of the lead predisposing for future dislodgments in patients without structural heart disease.

Keywords: LBBP zone; M-beat; cheesy septum; interventricular septum; left bundle branch pacing; template beat.

MeSH terms

  • Bundle of His*
  • Bundle-Branch Block*
  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial / adverse effects
  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial / methods
  • Electrocardiography / methods
  • Humans
  • Retrospective Studies