Unravelling of molecular biomarkers in synaptic plasticity of Alzheimer's disease: Critical role of the restoration of neuronal circuits

Ageing Res Rev. 2023 Nov:91:102069. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2023.102069. Epub 2023 Sep 9.


Learning and memory storage are the fundamental activities of the brain. Aberrant expression of synaptic molecular markers has been linked to memory impairment in AD. Aging is one of the risk factors linked to gradual memory loss. It is estimated that approximately 13 million people worldwide will have AD by 2050. A massive amount of oxidative stress is kept under control by a complex network of antioxidants, which occasionally fails and results in neuronal oxidative stress. Increasing evidence suggests that ROS may affect many pathological aspects of AD, including Aβ accumulation, tau hyperphosphorylation, synaptic plasticity, and mitochondrial dysfunction, which may collectively result in neurodegeneration in the brain. Further investigation into the relationship between oxidative stress and AD may provide an avenue for effective preservation and pharmacological treatment of this neurodegenerative disease. In this review, we briefly summarize the cellular mechanism underlying Aβ induced synaptic dysfunction. Since oxidative stress is common in the elderly and may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD, we also shed light on the role of antioxidant and inflammatory pathways in oxidative stress adaptation, which has a potential therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Antioxidant; Inflammatory pathways; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Oxidative stress; Synaptic plasticity.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Alzheimer Disease* / metabolism
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides / metabolism
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases*
  • Neuronal Plasticity
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology


  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides