Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), along with its clinical subtype known as polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), are among the leading causes of vision loss in elderly Asians. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) comprising 3,128 nAMD (1,555 PCV and 1,573 typical nAMD), and 5,493 controls of East Asian ancestry, we identify twelve loci, of which four are novel ([Formula: see text]). Substantial genetic sharing between PCV and typical nAMD is noted (rg = 0.666), whereas collagen extracellular matrix and fibrosis-related pathways are more pronounced for PCV. Whole-exome sequencing in 259 PCV patients revealed functional rare variants burden in collagen type I alpha 1 chain gene (COL1A1; [Formula: see text]) and potential enrichment of functional rare mutations at AMD-associated loci. At the GATA binding protein 5 (GATA5) locus, the most significant GWAS novel loci, the expressions of genes including laminin subunit alpha 5 (Lama5), mitochondrial ribosome associated GTPase 2 (Mtg2), and collagen type IX alpha 3 chain (Col9A3), are significantly induced during retinal angiogenesis and subretinal fibrosis in murine models. Furthermore, retinoic acid increased the expression of LAMA5 and MTG2 in vitro. Taken together, our data provide insights into the genetic basis of AMD pathogenesis in the Asian population.
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