Guidelines on optimizing the use of proton pump inhibitors: PPI stewardship

Indian J Gastroenterol. 2023 Oct;42(5):601-628. doi: 10.1007/s12664-023-01428-7. Epub 2023 Sep 12.


Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been available for over three decades and are among the most commonly prescribed medications. They are effective in treating a variety of gastric acid-related disorders. They are freely available and based on current evidence, use of PPIs for inappropriate indications and duration appears to be common. Over the years, concerns have been raised on the safety of PPIs as they have been associated with several adverse effects. Hence, there is a need for PPI stewardship to promote the use of PPIs for appropriate indication and duration. With this objective, the Indian Society of Gastroenterology has formulated guidelines on the rational use of PPIs. The guidelines were developed using a modified Delphi process. This paper presents these guidelines in detail, including the statements, review of literature, level of evidence and recommendations. This would help the clinicians in optimizing the use of PPIs in their practice and promote PPI stewardship.

Keywords: Adverse effects; Contraindications; Duration; Inappropriate use; Indications; Proton pump inhibitors; Stewardship.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Asian People
  • Drug Utilization Review* / standards
  • Gastroenterology / standards
  • Humans
  • India
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors* / adverse effects
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors* / therapeutic use


  • Proton Pump Inhibitors