Halide perovskites are crystalline semiconductors with exceptional optoelectronic properties, rapidly developing toward large-scale applications. Lead (II) (Pb2+ ) is the core element used to prepare halide perovskites. Pb2+ can displace key 2+ elements, including calcium, zinc and iron, that regulate vital physiological functions. Sn2+ can replace Pb2+ within the perovskite structure and, if accidentally dispersed in the environment, it readily oxidizes to Sn4+ , which is compatible with physiological functions and thus potentially safe. The 3+ salt bismuth (III) (Bi3+ ) is also potentially safe for the same reason and useful to prepare double perovskites. Here, this work studies the biotoxicity of Pb, Sn, and Bi perovskites in mice for the first time. This work analyses histopathology and growth of mice directly exposed to perovskites and investigate the development of their offspring generation. This study provides the screening of organs and key physiological functions targeted by perovskite exposure to design specific studies in mammalians.
Keywords: biotoxicity; halide perovskite; health; heavy metals; mice.
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