Microsomal glutathione transferase 1 (MGST1) is a member of the MAPEG family (membrane associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism), defined according to enzymatic activities, sequence motifs, and structural properties. MGST1 is a homotrimer which can bind three molecules of glutathione (GSH), with one modified to a thiolate anion displaying one-third-of-sites-reactivity. MGST1 has both glutathione transferase and peroxidase activities. Each is based on stabilizing the GSH thiolate in the same active site. MGST1 is abundant in the liver and displays a broad subcellular distribution with high levels in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial membranes, consistent with a physiological role in protection from reactive electrophilic intermediates and oxidative stress. In this review paper, we particularly focus on recent advances made in understanding MGST1 activation, induction, broad subcellular distribution, and the role of MGST1 in apoptosis, ferroptosis, cancer progression, and therapeutic responses.
Keywords: Apoptosis; Biomarker; Cancer; Drug resistance; Ferroptosis; Metastatic potential; Microsomal glutathione transferase; Polymorphisms; Prognosis; Survival.
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