The thief of (bed)time: Examination of the daily associations between bedtime procrastination and multidimensional sleep health

Sleep Health. 2023 Dec;9(6):903-909. doi: 10.1016/j.sleh.2023.08.002. Epub 2023 Sep 14.


Objectives: Sleep insufficiency is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Bedtime procrastination, or the needless and voluntary delay in sleep, is a sleep-related behavior which may interfere with sleep health. The objective of this study is to comprehensively examine the daily associations among bedtime procrastination and measures of sleep regularity, satisfaction, timing, efficiency, and duration.

Methods: Two hundred and eighty young adult participants (79% female; Mage=24.4) completed daily sleep diaries and measures of bedtime procrastination and sleep restoration over 14days, in addition to measures of chronotype. Multilevel models were constructed to examine the associations between bedtime procrastination and sleep health.

Results: Greater bedtime procrastination was associated with poorer sleep health, including poorer self-reported sleep restoration, later sleep timing, less efficient sleep, and shorter sleep duration. These associations were significant at both within- and between-person levels, and persisted after statistically adjusting for individuals' chronotypes.

Conclusions: This study offers bedtime procrastination as a putative mechanism for poor sleep health and finds that the associated risk of poor sleep from bedtime procrastination is independent of chronotype. Results presented here suggest that bedtime procrastination may be a relevant behavior in the development or maintenance of sleep and sleep-related disorders.

Keywords: Bedtime procrastination; Daily diaries; Multilevel modeling; Sleep behaviors; Sleep health.

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Procrastination*
  • Self Report
  • Sleep
  • Sleep Deprivation
  • Sleep Wake Disorders*
  • Young Adult