Clinical infertility is the inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of trying. Male factors are estimated to contribute to 30-50% of cases of infertility. Infertility or reduced fertility can result from testicular dysfunction, endocrinopathies, lifestyle factors (such as tobacco and obesity), congenital anatomical factors, gonadotoxic exposures and ageing, among others. The evaluation of male infertility includes detailed history taking, focused physical examination and selective laboratory testing, including semen analysis. Treatments include lifestyle optimization, empirical or targeted medical therapy as well as surgical therapies that lead to measurable improvement in fertility. Although male infertility is recognized as a disease with effects on quality of life for both members of the infertile couple, fewer data exist on specific quantification and impact compared with other health-related conditions.
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