Advancements in Nipah virus treatment: Analysis of current progress in vaccines, antivirals, and therapeutics

Immunology. 2024 Feb;171(2):155-169. doi: 10.1111/imm.13695. Epub 2023 Sep 15.


Nipah virus (NiV) causes severe encephalitis in humans. Three NiV strains NiV-Malaysia (NiVM ), NiV Bangladesh (NiVB ), and NiV India (NiVI reported in 2019) have been circulating in South-Asian nations. Sporadic outbreak observed in South-East Asian countries but human to human transmission raises the concern about its pandemic potential. The presence of the viral genome in reservoir bats has further confirmed that NiV has spread to the African and Australian continents. NiV research activities have gained momentum to achieve specific preparedness goals to meet any future emergency-as a result, several potential vaccine candidates have been developed and tested in a variety of animal models. Some of these candidate vaccines have entered further clinical trials. Research activities related to the discovery of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have resulted in the identification of a handful of candidates capable of neutralizing the virion. However, progress in discovering potential antiviral drugs has been limited. Thus, considering NiV's pandemic potential, it is crucial to fast-track ongoing projects related to vaccine clinical trials, anti-NiV therapeutics. Here, we discuss the current progress in NiV-vaccine research and therapeutic options, including mAbs and antiviral medications.

Keywords: Nipah virus; clinical trials; mAbs; protective immunity; vaccine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Australia
  • Henipavirus Infections* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Nipah Virus* / genetics
  • Viral Vaccines*


  • Viral Vaccines
  • Antiviral Agents