Medial Patellofemoral Complex Reconstruction (Combined Reconstruction of Medial Patellofemoral Ligament and Medial Quadriceps Tendon-Femoral Ligament) With Semitendinosus Autograft Resulted in Similar Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes to Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in Treating Recurrent Patellar Dislocation

Arthroscopy. 2024 Apr;40(4):1264-1276.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2023.08.079. Epub 2023 Sep 15.


Purpose: To compare clinical and radiographic outcomes of medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction (MPFL-R) and medial patellofemoral complex reconstruction (MPFC-R) for recurrent patellar dislocation. Outcome measures were compared based on the Insall-Salvati index.

Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with recurrent patellar dislocation and underwent either MPFL-R or MPFC-R (combined reconstruction of MPFL and medial quadriceps tendon-femoral ligament) were retrospectively analyzed. Group allocation was based on surgical procedure and patient characteristics were collected. Clinical assessments included patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and return-to-sports rates. Minimal clinically important difference analysis was performed. A subgroup analysis of PROMs was carried out between patients with an Insall-Salvati index ≤1.2 versus >1.2. The patellar tilt angle, lateral patellar displacement, and bisect offset ratio were measured pre- and postsurgery. Functional failures and complications were assessed.

Results: Overall, 70 patients (72 knees) in the MPFL-R group and 58 patients (61 knees) in the MPFC-R group were included. Patient characteristics were comparable between the groups. At a minimum follow-up of 24 (mean, 50.6 ± 22.1) months, all PROMs were substantially improved (P < .001), without significant intergroup differences. The percentages of patients reaching the minimal clinically important difference were similar after MPFL-R and MPFC-R: 98.6% versus 93.4% (International Knee Documentation Committee), 97.2% versus 98.4% (Lysholm), 98.6% versus 100% (Kujala), and 77.8% versus 72.1% (Tegner). The subgroup analysis based on patellar height and the return-to-sport rates also suggested comparable results. Radiographic evaluation demonstrated significantly smaller lateral patellar displacements (P = .004) and bisect offset ratios (P < .001) but similar patellar tilt angles after MPFC-R. Four (5.6%) patients receiving MPFL-R and 2 (3.3%) patients receiving MPFC-R reported recurrence of functional instability, without statistically significant difference.

Conclusions: MPFC-R resulted in similar overall clinical and radiographic outcomes to MPFL-R in treating recurrent patellar dislocation. MPFC-R might not provide additional benefits for patients with an Insall-Salvati index >1.2.

Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic, retrospective cohort study.

MeSH terms

  • Autografts
  • Hamstring Muscles*
  • Humans
  • Joint Dislocations*
  • Joint Instability* / surgery
  • Ligaments, Articular / diagnostic imaging
  • Ligaments, Articular / surgery
  • Patella / surgery
  • Patellar Dislocation* / diagnostic imaging
  • Patellar Dislocation* / surgery
  • Patellofemoral Joint* / diagnostic imaging
  • Patellofemoral Joint* / surgery
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tendons / transplantation
  • Tibia / surgery