Demographically adjusted Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test norms in a Swedish and Norwegian cohort aged 49-77 years and comparison with North American norms

Scand J Psychol. 2024 Apr;65(2):168-178. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12966. Epub 2023 Sep 18.


Introduction: The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) is one of the most commonly used neuropsychological tests in Sweden and Norway. However, no publications provide normative data for this population. The objective of this study was to present demographically adjusted norms for a Swedish and Norwegian population and to evaluate these in an independent comparison group.

Methods: The RCFT was administrated to 344 healthy controls recruited from the Swedish Gothenburg MCI study, the Norwegian Dementia Disease Initiation study, and the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study. Age ranged from 49 to 77 years (mean = 62.4 years, SD = 5.0 years), and education ranged from 6 to 24 years (mean = 13.3 years, SD = 3.0 years). Using a regression-based procedure, we investigated the effects of age, sex, and years of education on test performance. We compared and evaluated our Swedish and Norwegian norms with North American norms in an independent comparison group of 145 individuals.

Results: In healthy controls, age and education were associated with performance on the RCFT. When comparing normative RCFT performance in an independent comparison group, North American norms generally overestimated immediate and delayed recall performance. In contrast, our Swedish and Norwegian norms appear to better take into account factors of age and education.

Conclusions: We presented demographically adjusted norms for the RCFT in a Swedish and Norwegian sample. This is the first normative study of the RCFT that presents normative data for this population. In addition, we showed that North American norms might produce inaccurate normative estimations in an independent comparison group.

Keywords: Norms; Norwegian; RCFT; Scandinavian; Swedish; cross-cultural neuropsychology.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Educational Status
  • Humans
  • Mental Recall*
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • North America
  • Sweden