Regenerative medicine mainly relies on heterologous transplantation, often hindered by sample availability and ethical issues. Furthermore, patients are required to take immunosuppressive medications to prevent adverse side effects. Stem cell-derived 3D-organoid culture has provided new alternatives for transplantation and regenerative medicine. Scholars have combined organoids with tissue engineering technology to improve reproducibility, the accuracy of constitution and throughput, and genetic correction to achieve a more personalised therapy. Here, we review the available applications of organoids in regenerative medicine and the current challenges concerning this field.
Keywords: genetic engineering; organoids; pluripotent stem cell; regenerative medicine; transplantation.
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