Incidence, clinical characteristics, and survival outcomes of ovarian strumal diseases: a retrospective cohort study

BMC Womens Health. 2023 Sep 19;23(1):497. doi: 10.1186/s12905-023-02624-5.


Background: Struma ovarii (SO) is a rare tumor and may transform into ovarian strumal carcinoid (OSC) and/or malignant struma ovarii (MSO), but the incidence, clinical characteristics, and survival outcomes have not been well defined.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with ovarian strumal diseases treated in the our hospital between 1980 and 2022. Subgroup analyses of SO, OSC, and MSO were subsequently performed.

Results: A total of 275 cases (2.14%) were identified in a cohort of 12,864 patients with ovarian teratomas, where SO, OSC, and MSO accounted for 83.3%, 12.0%, and 4.7% of cases, respectively. There were no significant differences in age, tumor sizes, elevated tumor markers, and ascites among the three subgroups. At initial treatment, all patients with SO or OSC had FIGO stage I disease except one SO patient presenting metastatic disease, ten patients had MSO confined to the ovary, whereas other three patients had metastatic diseases. Two patients with SO respectively relapsed at peritoneum and anterior mesorectum, while none of the OSC patients presented tumor recurrence or death despite different surgical procedures employed. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 88.9%, and only one death occurred at 9.5 years after diagnosis in patients with MSO. Radioiodine therapy showed satisfactory therapeutic efficacy, but these patients showed poor responses to the chemotherapy.

Conclusion: 2.14% of ovarian teratoma could be classified as SO, of which 12.0% and 4.7% of SO may transform into OSC and MSO, repsectively. The survival outcomes were excellent even after SO transformed into OSC or MSO.

Synopsis: SO occupied 2.14% of ovarian teratoma, where 12.0% and 4.7% of SO may transform into OSC and MSO, respectively, and had excellent survival outcomes.

Keywords: Clinical characteristics; Malignant struma ovarii; Ovarian strumal carcinoid; Struma ovarii; Survival outcomes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoid Tumor*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Iodine Radioisotopes
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Ovarian Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Ovarian Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Struma Ovarii* / epidemiology
  • Struma Ovarii* / therapy
  • Teratoma* / epidemiology
  • Teratoma* / therapy


  • Iodine Radioisotopes

Supplementary concepts

  • Teratoma, Ovarian