A US-based national surveillance study for the susceptibility and epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile isolates with special reference to ridinilazole: 2020-2021

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2023 Oct 18;67(10):e0034923. doi: 10.1128/aac.00349-23. Epub 2023 Sep 20.


We have previously reported on the susceptibility and epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile isolates from six geographically dispersed medical centers in the United States. This current survey was conducted with isolates collected in 2020-2021 from six geographically dispersed medical centers in the United States, with specific attention to susceptibility to ridinilazole as well as nine comparators. C. difficile isolates or stools from patients with C. difficile antibiotic-associated diarrhea were collected and referred to a central laboratory. After species confirmation of 300 isolates at the central laboratory, antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by the agar dilution method [M11-A9, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)] against the 10 agents. Ribotyping was performed by PCR capillary gel electrophoresis on all isolates. Ridinilazole had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 90 of 0.25 mcg/mL, and no isolate had an MIC greater than 0.5 mcg/mL. In comparison, fidaxomicin had an MIC 90 of 0.5 mcg/mL. The vancomycin MIC 90 was 2 mcg/mL with a 0.7% resistance rate [both CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) criteria]. The metronidazole MIC 90 was 1 mcg/mL, with none resistant by CLSI criteria, and a 0.3% resistance rate by EUCAST criteria. Among the 50 different ribotypes isolated in the survey, the most common ribotype was 014-020 (14.0%) followed by 106 (10.3%), 027 (10%), 002 (8%), and 078-126 (4.3%). Ridinilazole maintained activity against all ribotypes and all strains resistant to any other agent tested. Ridinilazole showed excellent in vitro activity against C. difficile isolates collected between 2020 and 2021 in the United States, independent of ribotype.

Keywords: Clostridioides difficile; US surveillance studies; in vitro activity; ribotyping; ridinilazole.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Clostridioides
  • Clostridioides difficile* / genetics
  • Clostridium Infections* / drug therapy
  • Clostridium Infections* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Ribotyping


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • ridinilazole