Combined residency training in internal medicine and pediatrics is becoming a popular postgraduate program among graduating medical students. The number of such programs has increased rapidly but with little interchange of ideas and without the benefit of a national data base. In this paper, the authors review the experience of two combined programs. Initially established because of the desire to provide broad-based training in primary care, the programs now offer a curriculum that prepares residents for primary care or education in the subspecialties. The difficulty for residents of achieving competence in two disciplines is compounded by a lack of faculty role models. The two programs offer special advantages to the residents and the departments involved. The career outcomes of program graduates have varied from primary care or subspecialty practice in one or both disciplines to faculty positions in teaching institutions. Whether the program remains successful will depend on the ability of its graduates to offer special talents to academic and clinical practice settings and on the availability of funding.