Green extraction of phenolics and flavonoids from black mulberry fruit using natural deep eutectic solvents: optimization and surface morphology

BMC Chem. 2023 Sep 21;17(1):119. doi: 10.1186/s13065-023-01041-x.


This study deployed ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), combined with natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES), to extract phenolics and flavonoids from the black mulberry fruit, and the antioxidant activity was examined. The extraction yields of NADES-based UAE were assessed based on the yields of phenolics and flavonoids extracted from the black mulberry fruit. This study selected the molar ratios of hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA) and hydrogen bond donors HBD at 1:2 from previous studies. Choline chloride-lactic acid showed the highest solubility with phenolics and flavonoids among NADES systems. One-factor experiments evaluated the effect of UAE conditions (liquid-to-solid ratio (LSR), water content in NADES, temperature, and time) on TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activity. The suitable NADES-based UAE conditions for extracting phenolics and flavonoids from the black mulberry fruit were 60 ml/g of LSR, 40% water content, 70 °C, and 15 min. Response surface methodology with the Box-Behnken design model optimized the NADES-based UAE process based on response (TPC, TFC, ABTS, OH, and DPPH). The optimal conditions for the NADES-based UAE process were 70 ml/g of LSR, 38.9% water content in NADES, 67.9 °C, and 24.2 min of extraction time. The predicted values of the Box-Behnken design were compatible with the experimental results. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to survey the surface of black mulberry fruit with and without sonication. SEM can assist in demonstrating the destructive effect of NADES and ultrasonic waves on material surfaces. SEM findings indicated the high surface destruction capacity of NADES, which partially contributed to a superior extraction yield of NADES than conventional organic solvents. The study proposes an efficient and green method for extracting bioactive compounds from black mulberry fruits. The black mulberry fruit extracts can be applied to meat preservation and beverages with high antioxidants.

Keywords: Black mulberry fruit; Flavonoids; Natural deep eutectic solvents; Optimization; Phenolics; Ultrasonic-assisted extraction.