Synaptotagmin 1-triggered lipid signaling facilitates coupling of exo- and endocytosis

Neuron. 2023 Dec 6;111(23):3765-3774.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2023.08.016. Epub 2023 Sep 21.


Exocytosis and endocytosis are essential physiological processes and are of prime importance for brain function. Neurotransmission depends on the Ca2+-triggered exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs). In neurons, exocytosis is spatiotemporally coupled to the retrieval of an equal amount of membrane and SV proteins by compensatory endocytosis. How exocytosis and endocytosis are balanced to maintain presynaptic membrane homeostasis and, thereby, sustain brain function is essentially unknown. We combine mouse genetics with optical imaging to show that the SV calcium sensor Synaptotagmin 1 couples exocytic SV fusion to the endocytic retrieval of SV membranes by promoting the local activity-dependent formation of the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) at presynaptic sites. Interference with these mechanisms impairs PI(4,5)P2-triggered SV membrane retrieval but not exocytic SV fusion. Our findings demonstrate that the coupling of SV exocytosis and endocytosis involves local Synaptotagmin 1-induced lipid signaling to maintain presynaptic membrane homeostasis in central nervous system neurons.

Keywords: endocytosis; exocytosis; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate; synaptic neurotransmission; synaptic vesicles; synaptotagmin.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Endocytosis / physiology
  • Exocytosis / physiology
  • Lipids
  • Mice
  • Synaptic Transmission
  • Synaptic Vesicles* / metabolism
  • Synaptotagmin I* / genetics
  • Synaptotagmin I* / metabolism


  • Lipids
  • Synaptotagmin I
  • Syt1 protein, mouse