Comprehensive proteomics and meta-analysis of COVID-19 host response

Nat Commun. 2023 Sep 22;14(1):5921. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-41159-z.


COVID-19 is characterised by systemic immunological perturbations in the human body, which can lead to multi-organ damage. Many of these processes are considered to be mediated by the blood. Therefore, to better understand the systemic host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we performed systematic analyses of the circulating, soluble proteins in the blood through global proteomics by mass-spectrometry (MS) proteomics. Here, we show that a large part of the soluble blood proteome is altered in COVID-19, among them elevated levels of interferon-induced and proteasomal proteins. Some proteins that have alternating levels in human cells after a SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in different organs of COVID-19 patients are deregulated in the blood, suggesting shared infection-related changes.The availability of different public proteomic resources on soluble blood proteome alterations leaves uncertainty about the change of a given protein during COVID-19. Hence, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of MS global proteomics studies of soluble blood proteomes, including up to 1706 individuals (1039 COVID-19 patients), to provide concluding estimates for the alteration of 1517 soluble blood proteins in COVID-19. Finally, based on the meta-analysis we developed CoViMAPP, an open-access resource for effect sizes of alterations and diagnostic potential of soluble blood proteins in COVID-19, which is publicly available for the research, clinical, and academic community.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19*
  • Cytoplasm
  • Humans
  • Proteome
  • Proteomics
  • SARS-CoV-2


  • Proteome