Building Programs to Eradicate Toxoplasmosis Part III: Epidemiology and Risk Factors

Curr Pediatr Rep. 2022 Sep;10(3):109-124. doi: 10.1007/s40124-022-00265-0. Epub 2022 Jun 22.


Purpose of review: Review comprehensive data on rates of toxoplasmosis in Panama and Colombia.

Recent findings: Samples and data sets from Panama and Colombia, that facilitated estimates regarding seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma and risk factors, were reviewed.

Summary: Screening maps, seroprevalence maps, and risk factor mathematical models were devised based on these data. Studies in Ciudad de Panamá estimated seroprevalence at between 22 and 44%. Consistent relationships were found between higher prevalence rates and factors such as poverty and proximity to water sources. Prenatal screening rates for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were variable, despite existence of a screening law. Heat maps showed a correlation between proximity to bodies of water and overall Toxoplasma seroprevalence. Spatial epidemiological maps and mathematical models identify specific regions that could most benefit from comprehensive, preventive healthcare campaigns related to congenital toxoplasmosis and Toxoplasma infection.

Keywords: Incidence; Prevalence; Risk factors; Screening; Spatial epidemiology; Toxoplasma; Toxoplasmosis.