Optimizing Ultrasonic-Assisted and Microwave-Assisted Extraction Processes to Recover Phenolics and Flavonoids from Passion Fruit Peels

ACS Omega. 2023 Aug 29;8(37):33870-33882. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.3c04550. eCollection 2023 Sep 19.


This study optimized the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) processes to acquire phenolics and flavonoids from passion fruit peels using a mixture of ethanol, acetone, and water. An augmented simplex-centroid design was employed to find the suitable volume ratio among solvent ingredients to attain the highest extraction yield of phenolics and flavonoids. One-factor experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of UAE and MAE parameters on the recovery yield of phenolics and flavonoids before the two processes were optimized using Box-Behnken Design (BBD) models. The optimal UAE conditions for recovering phenolics and flavonoids from passion fruit peel powder (PFP) were 28 mL/g of liquid-to-solid ratio (LSR), 608 W of ultrasonic power, and 63 °C for 20 min to acquire total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) at 39.38 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dried basis (mg GAE/g db) and 25.79 mg of rutin equivalents per gram of dried basis (mg RE/g db), respectively. MAE conditions for attaining phenolics and flavonoids from PFP were 26 mL/g of LSR and 606 W of microwave power for 2 min to recover TPC and TFC at 17.74 mg GAE/g db and 8.11 mg RE/g db, respectively. The second-order kinetic model was employed to determine the UAE and MAE mechanism of TPC and TFC and the thermodynamic parameters of the extraction processes. The antioxidant activities of passion fruit peel extracts at optimal conditions were examined to compare the efficiency of UAE and MAE. This study establishes an effective approach for obtaining phenolics and flavonoids from passion fruit peels.