Background and purpose: Few studies have focused on nonagenarians treated with total hip arthroplasty (THA). We investigated 30- and 90-day postoperative mortality, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), reoperation rate, risk factors for reoperation, and relative patient survival in nonagenarians or older.
Patients and methods: 167,091 patients with primary cemented THA performed for osteoarthritis between 1992 and 2019 were identified in the Swedish Arthroplasty Register. Patients were divided into age groups based on age at time of surgery: 60-74 (n = 90,285), 75-89 (n = 75,421), and > 90 years (n = 1,385). Mortality rate, PROMs (pain-Likert scale, satisfaction-Likert scale, EQ-VAS, n = 67,553), reoperation rate, risk factors for reoperation, and relative patient survival were studied.
Results: The nonagenarians had the highest postoperative mortality rate, 1.7% and 2.6% at 30 and 90 days, respectively. Nonagenarian females reported significantly lower pre- and postoperative EQ-VAS compared with patients aged 60-89 years but reported least pain and highest patient satisfaction 1 year after surgery. At 2 years the nonagenarians had highest reoperation frequency-2.7%-due to infection (1.5%), dislocation (0.8%), and periprosthetic fracture (0.4%). Increasing age, male sex, and polished stem were associated with higher risk of reoperation within 2 years. 8-year age- and sex-matched relative survival was highest among nonagenarians (study group/matched population: ≥ 90 years 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0-3.8; 75-89 years: 1.4, CI 1.4-1.4, and 60-74 years: 1.1, CI 1.1-1.1).
Conclusion: 30- and 90-day postoperative mortality and reoperation rates were higher in nonagenarians but PROM data showed least pain and highest patient satisfaction 1 year after surgery with THA among female nonagenarians with primary osteoarthritis.