Consensus-Based Development of a Global Registry for Traumatic Brain Injury: Establishment, Protocol, and Implementation

Neurosurgery. 2024 Feb 1;94(2):278-288. doi: 10.1227/neu.0000000000002661. Epub 2023 Sep 25.


Background and objectives: Global disparity exists in the demographics, pathology, management, and outcomes of surgically treated traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the factors underlying these differences, including intervention effectiveness, remain unclear. Establishing a more accurate global picture of the burden of TBI represents a challenging task requiring systematic and ongoing data collection of patients with TBI across all management modalities. The objective of this study was to establish a global registry that would enable local service benchmarking against a global standard, identification of unmet need in TBI management, and its evidence-based prioritization in policymaking.

Methods: The registry was developed in an iterative consensus-based manner by a panel of neurotrauma professionals. Proposed registry objectives, structure, and data points were established in 2 international multidisciplinary neurotrauma meetings, after which a survey consisting of the same data points was circulated within the global neurotrauma community. The survey results were disseminated in a final meeting to reach a consensus on the most pertinent registry variables.

Results: A total of 156 professionals from 53 countries, including both high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries, responded to the survey. The final consensus-based registry includes patients with TBI who required neurosurgical admission, a neurosurgical procedure, or a critical care admission. The data set comprised clinically pertinent information on demographics, injury characteristics, imaging, treatments, and short-term outcomes. Based on the consensus, the Global Epidemiology and Outcomes following Traumatic Brain Injury (GEO-TBI) registry was established.

Conclusion: The GEO-TBI registry will enable high-quality data collection, clinical auditing, and research activity, and it is supported by the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies and the National Institute of Health Research Global Health Program. The GEO-TBI registry ( ) is now open for participant site recruitment. Any center involved in TBI management is welcome to join the collaboration to access the registry.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Benchmarking
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic* / surgery
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic* / therapy
  • Consensus
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Registries