Evaluation of free vascularized medial femoral condyle bone grafts in the treatment of avascular scaphoid waist nonunion

Jt Dis Relat Surg. 2023 Sep 16;34(3):661-668. doi: 10.52312/jdrs.2023.1009.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the medial femoral condyle (MFC) bone graft procedure for scaphoid waist nonunion with avascular necrosis on magnetic resonance imaging or prior surgery failure.

Patients and methods: Between June 2015 and December 2018, a total of 17 patients (16 males, 1 female; mean age: 29±8.2 years; range, 16 to 40 years) with scaphoid waist nonunion who were treated with vascularized MFC bone grafting were retrospectively analyzed. Pre- and postoperative carpal indices, grip strengths for both hands, range of motion, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QDASH) score, and Mayo Wrist Score (MWS) were evaluated.

Results: After vascularized MFC bone graft surgery, 15 patients healed and returned to work without any limitations. Ten patients of left scaphoid nonunion and seven cases of right scaphoid nonunion were treated; for eight of these patients, the operation was on the dominant side. Eight of these patients were smokers. The mean follow-up was 22.4±5.8 months. The mean hand grip strength was increased from 74.5 to 84% on the contralateral side (p<0.05). The average revised carpal height ratio improved from 1.57 to 1.59 (p<0.05) and the scapholunate angle changed from 56.9° to 51.6° (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The MFC bone grafting is one of the best surgical procedures for small defects such as scaphoid waist nonunion with high union rates, good functional outcomes, and minimal donor site morbidity.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Femur / diagnostic imaging
  • Femur / surgery
  • Fractures, Ununited* / diagnostic imaging
  • Fractures, Ununited* / surgery
  • Hand Strength
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Scaphoid Bone* / diagnostic imaging
  • Scaphoid Bone* / surgery
  • Young Adult