Full genome-based characterization of an Asian G3P[6] human rotavirus strain found in a diarrheic child in Japan: Evidence for porcine-to-human zoonotic transmission

Infect Genet Evol. 2023 Nov:115:105507. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2023.105507. Epub 2023 Sep 25.


Human rotavirus strains having the unconventional G3P[6] genotype have been sporadically detected in diarrheic patients in different parts of the world. However, the full genomes of only three human G3P[6] strains from Asian countries (China, Indonesia, and Vietnam) have been sequenced and characterized, and thus the exact origin and evolution of G3P[6] strains in Asia remain to be elucidated. Here, we sequenced and characterized the full genome of a G3P[6] strain (RVA/Human-wt/JPN/SO1199/2020/G3P[6]) found in a stool sample from a 3-month-old infant admitted with acute gastroenteritis in Japan. On full genomic analysis, strain SO1199 was revealed to have a unique Wa-like genogroup configuration: G3-P[6]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. VP6 genotype I5 and NSP1 genotype A8 are commonly found in porcine rotavirus strains. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all 11 genes of strain SO1199 were closely related to those of porcine and/or porcine-like human rotaviruses and thus appeared to be of porcine origin. Thus, strain SO1199 was shown to possess a porcine-like genomic backbone and thus is likely to be the result of interspecies transmission of a porcine rotavirus strain. Of note is that all 11 genes of strain SO1199 were phylogenetically located in clusters, distinct from those of the previously identified porcine-like human G3P[6] strains from around the world including Asia, suggesting the occurrence of independent porcine-to-human zoonotic transmission events. To our knowledge, this is the first report on full genome-based characterization of a human G3P[6] strain that has emerged in Japan. Our findings revealed the diversity of unconventional human G3P[6] strains in Asia, and provide important insights into the origin and evolution of G3P[6] strains.

Keywords: Asia; Full genome analysis; Group A rotavirus; Human G3P[6] strains; Japan; Porcine-to-human zoonotic transmission.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Child
  • Genome, Viral
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Japan
  • Phylogeny
  • Rotavirus Infections*
  • Rotavirus* / genetics
  • Swine

Supplementary concepts

  • Rotavirus C