Effect of Mycetoma in Lung Transplant Patients - a Single Center Experience

Transplant Proc. 2023 Nov;55(9):2197-2202. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2023.08.005. Epub 2023 Sep 26.

Abstract

Background: Mycetomas are uncommon in lung transplant recipients. Prior studies have shown increased mortality associated with mycetoma in lung transplant recipients (LTR). We reviewed our center's experience in outcome of LTRs with pre -or post-transplant mycetoma.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed electronic health records of LTRs performed at our institute between January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2020.

Results: Mycetoma was present in less than 1 percent of LTR patients (7/1086). Mean age at the time of the transplant was 65 years. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (5/7), interstitial lung disease (1/7), and sarcoidosis (1/7) were underlying pulmonary diagnoses. Seventy-one percent (5/7) received single lung transplant and 29% received double lung transplant. Seventy-one percent had negative serum galactomannan vs 29% (2/7) of patients who had positive serum galactomannan (one post and one pre). Fifty-seven percent had positive bronchoalveolar aspergillus galactomannan (23% had negative). A total of 42% (3/7) were found to have mycetoma before transplant and 58% (4/7) had mycetoma post transplant. Chest computed tomography findings in all patients were consistent with mycetoma.

Conclusions: In our cohort of patients, mycetoma was not found to be the primary cause of death if diagnosed pre transplant. Transplant recipients with mycetoma pre transplant did not develop invasive fungal infection or mycetoma post transplant. Careful evaluation of lung transplant candidates with mycetoma is critical. Further studies are needed to determine optimal duration of antifungal therapy and to determine if surgical resection may be needed to manage post-lung transplant mycetoma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Lung
  • Lung Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Mycetoma* / diagnosis
  • Mycetoma* / drug therapy
  • Mycetoma* / etiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Transplant Recipients

Substances

  • Antifungal Agents