Effects of Diet Consistency on Rat Maxillary and Mandibular Growth within Three Generations-A Longitudinal CBCT Study

Biology (Basel). 2023 Sep 20;12(9):1260. doi: 10.3390/biology12091260.


Background: In this study, wistar rats were used to examine the impact of diet consistency on maxillary and mandibular growth over three generations.

Methods: In this investigation, a breeding sample of 60 female and 8 male wistar rats was used. Measuring was only performed on female animals. The first generation's primary breeding sample consisted of 20 female wistar rats that were 30 days old and 4 male rats that were also 30 days old; two subsequent generations were created from these animals. At the age of 100 days, CBCTs were collected of all male rats. Twenty-eight craniofacial landmarks were selected for the linear measurements on stl format extracted from the DICOM files. A Bonferroni test was performed for the statistical analysis.

Results: Means of measurements of all soft diet groups compared to corresponding measurements of the hard diet groups were significantly different. According to linear measurements, there was statistical difference on the maxillary measurements between the soft diet groups of the first and third generation, while the rest did not appear to have any statistical difference. There was significant difference for the mandibular dimensions only when the first generation soft diet group was compared with the third generation soft diet group.

Conclusions: Food consistency has a significant impact on the growth and development of the maxilla and mandible. Soft diet habits may result in retrognathic mandible, and narrower maxilla.

Keywords: condylar process; growth; hard diet; mandible; maxilla; soft diet.

Grants and funding

The Department of Orthodontics at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece, funded this study.