A Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, Antimicrobial Activity, and Chemical Profile of Coffea robusta Extracts Using Subcritical Fluid Extraction and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

Foods. 2023 Sep 15;12(18):3443. doi: 10.3390/foods12183443.


In this study, extracts of Robusta-roasted coffee were obtained using various extraction techniques, including subcritical fluid extractions using HFC-134a and HCFC-22 under room-temperature batch extraction, frozen-temperature batch extraction, and continuous extraction conditions. Additionally, supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction was performed using ethanol and tetrahydrofuran as co-solvents. These extractions were performed due to the presence of potent antioxidants and antibacterial substances in the extracts. Extraction machines were built to process the extraction. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was evaluated using total phenolic content and DPPH and FRAP assays, while antibacterial potential was identified using the disk diffusion method. The results showed that HCFC-22 extraction produced the highest yield compared to other extraction methods, but HFC-134a extraction had the highest antioxidant potential values. The yield and antioxidant potential of the extracts obtained using room-temperature batch extraction were slightly higher than those obtained using frozen-temperature batch extraction and continuous extraction. The yield and antioxidant potential of the extracts obtained using SCCO2 extraction were similar to those obtained using HFC-134a and HCFC-22 extractions, and co-solvents slightly improved the extraction performance. The extracts were found to be more effective as inhibitors of Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. Caffeine was the most prominent tentative chemical compound in all coffee extracts. This research study provides a better understanding of various extraction techniques using HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and SCCO2 when applied to roasted Robusta coffee beans, with a focus on yield, antioxidant potential, antimicrobial potential, and tentative chemical profiles.

Keywords: HCFC-22; HFC-134a; antimicrobial; antioxidant; phytonic extraction; supercritical extraction; total phenolic.