Automatic Heart Rate Detection during Sleep Using Tracheal Audio Recordings from Wireless Acoustic Sensor

Diagnostics (Basel). 2023 Sep 11;13(18):2914. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics13182914.

Abstract

Background: Heart rate is an essential diagnostic parameter indicating a patient's condition. The assessment of heart rate is also a crucial parameter in the diagnostics of various sleep disorders, including sleep apnoea, as well as sleep/wake pattern analysis. It is usually measured using an electrocardiograph (ECG)-a device monitoring the electrical activity of the heart using several electrodes attached to a patient's upper body-or photoplethysmography (PPG).

Methods: The following paper investigates an alternative method for heart rate detection and monitoring that operates on tracheal audio recordings. Datasets for this research were obtained from six participants along with ECG Holter (for validation), as well as from fifty participants undergoing a full night polysomnography testing, during which both heart rate measurements and audio recordings were acquired.

Results: The presented method implements a digital filtering and peak detection algorithm applied to audio recordings obtained with a wireless sensor using a contact microphone attached in the suprasternal notch. The system was validated using ECG Holter data, achieving over 92% accuracy. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm was evaluated against whole-night polysomnography-derived HR using Bland-Altman's plots and Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, reaching the average of 0.82 (0.93 maximum) with 0 BPM error tolerance and 0.89 (0.97 maximum) at ±3 BPM.

Conclusions: The results prove that the proposed system serves the purpose of a precise heart rate monitoring tool that can conveniently assess HR during sleep as a part of a home-based sleep disorder diagnostics process.

Keywords: digital filtering; heart rate; polysomnography; sleep disordered breathing; tracheal audio.

Grants and funding

This research was performed as a project number POIR.01.01.01-00-0212/19 titled: “Wireless sensor and telemedical system for the diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing” co-financed by European Union from the European Regional Development Fund, Smart Growth 2014-2020 Operational Diagnostics 2022, 12, 1195 8 of 9 Program. The Project is implemented under the competition of the Polish National Center for Research and Development.