A Spectrum of Solutions: Unveiling Non-Pharmacological Approaches to Manage Autism Spectrum Disorder

Medicina (Kaunas). 2023 Aug 31;59(9):1584. doi: 10.3390/medicina59091584.


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that causes difficulty while socializing and communicating and the performance of stereotyped behavior. ASD is thought to have a variety of causes when accompanied by genetic disorders and environmental variables together, resulting in abnormalities in the brain. A steep rise in ASD has been seen regardless of the numerous behavioral and pharmaceutical therapeutic techniques. Therefore, using complementary and alternative therapies to treat autism could be very significant. Thus, this review is completely focused on non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions which include different diets, supplements, antioxidants, hormones, vitamins and minerals to manage ASD. Additionally, we also focus on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, herbal remedies, camel milk and cannabiodiol. Additionally, we concentrate on how palatable phytonutrients provide a fresh glimmer of hope in this situation. Moreover, in addition to phytochemicals/nutraceuticals, it also focuses on various microbiomes, i.e., gut, oral, and vaginal. Therefore, the current comprehensive review opens a new avenue for managing autistic patients through non-pharmacological intervention.

Keywords: ASD; microbiome; neurodevelopmental disorder; neurotherapeutics; nutritional therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder* / therapy
  • Autistic Disorder*
  • Brain
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Vitamins


  • Vitamins
  • Antioxidants

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.