The Radiological Manifestations of Phagocytic Primary Immunodeficiencies in Children

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2023 Sep 3;22(4):398-404. doi: 10.18502/ijaai.v22i4.13612.


Primary immunodeficiencies are a diverse group of rare genetic disorders, among which phagocytic dysfunction impairs neutrophil function in a wide range of inherited disorders. Due to the heterogeneity of the disorders a multidisciplinary approach is often required for early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging findings in children admitted with phagocytic primary immunodeficiencies. Thirty-five children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for phagocytic dysfunction were enrolled in this study. The patients were under close observation and monitoring from January 2011 until data locking in December 2017. The diagnosis of phagocytic immunodeficiency was confirmed by the patient's clinical course, presentation features, and laboratory data. Among the 35 patients studied, the most frequent condition was chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) (23 patients), followed by different types of neutropenia (8 patients) and Job's syndrome (4 patients). Mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathies and consolidation were the most frequent presentations. There was a significant relationship between mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathies and fungal infections. A meaningful relationship was also found between pulmonary nodules without halo signs in patients with concomitant tuberculosis and fungal infections. A significant correlation was found between CGD, pulmonary fibrotic changes, and mediastinal lymphadenopathies. The most frequent radiological manifestations in children included mediastinal and hilar consolidations. Physicians' awareness of the radiological and clinical manifestations of these inherited diseases may be helpful in the early diagnosis and timely initiation of specific prophylaxis measures to prevent infections and also to initiate hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as the curative management modality.

Keywords: Chronic granulomatous disease; Lymphadenopathy; Phagocytic bactericidal dysfunction.