Endometriosis with colonic and rectal involvement: surgical approach and outcomes in 142 patients

Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2023 Sep 29;408(1):385. doi: 10.1007/s00423-023-03095-w.

Abstract

Purpose: Endometriosis involving the colon and/or rectum (CRE) is operatively managed using various methods. We aimed to determine if a more limited excision is associated with 30-day complications, symptom improvement, and/or recurrence.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of consecutive cases of patients who underwent surgical management of CRE between 2010 and 2018. Primary outcomes were the associations between risk factors and symptom improvement, 30-day complications, and time to recurrence. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the independent risk factors.

Results: Of 2681 endometriosis cases, 142 [5.3% of total, mean age 35.4 (31.0; 39.0) years, 73.9% stage IV] underwent CRE excision (superficial partial = 66.9%, segmental = 27.5%, full thickness = 1.41%). Minor complications (14.8%) were associated with blood loss [150 (112; 288) vs. 100 (50.0; 200) mls, p = 0.046], Sigmoid involvement [45.5% vs. 12.2%, HR 5.89 (1.4; 22.5), p = 0.01], stoma formation [52.6% vs. 8.9%, HR 10.9 (3.65; 34.1), p < 0.001], and segmental resection [38.5% vs. 5.8%, HR 9.75 (3.54; 30.4), p < 0.001]. Superficial, partial-thickness resections were associated with decreased risk [(4.2% vs. 36.2%), HR 0.08 (0.02; 0.24), p < 0.001]. Factors associated with major complications (8.5%) were blood loss [250 (100; 400) vs. 100 (50.0; 200) mls, p = 0.03], open surgery [31.6% vs. 4.9%, HR 8.74 (2.36; 32.9), p = 0.001], stoma formation [42% vs. 3.3%, HR 20.3 (5.41; 90.0), p < 0.001], and segmental colectomy [28.2% vs. 0.9%, HR 34.6 (6.25; 876), p < 0.001]. Partial-thickness resection was associated with decreased risk ([.05% vs. 23.4%, HR 8.74 (2.36; 32.9), p < 0.001]. 19.1% experienced recurrence. Open surgery [5.2% vs. 21.3%, HR 0.14 (0.02; 1.05), p = 0.027] and superficial partial thickness excision [23.4% vs. 10.6%, HR 2.86 (1.08; 7.59), p = 0.027] were associated. Segmental resection was associated with decreased recurrence risk [7.6% vs. 23.5%, HR 0.27 (0.08; 0.91), p = 0.024].

Conclusion: Limiting resection to partial-thickness or full-thickness disc excision compared to bowel resection may improve complications but increase recurrence risk.

Keywords: Colon; Complications; Endometriosis; Rectum.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Colectomy / adverse effects
  • Colon / surgery
  • Endometriosis* / complications
  • Endometriosis* / diagnosis
  • Endometriosis* / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Laparoscopy* / methods
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Rectal Diseases* / surgery
  • Rectum / surgery
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome