Intraoperative neurophysiology in pediatric neurosurgery: a historical perspective

Childs Nerv Syst. 2023 Oct;39(10):2929-2941. doi: 10.1007/s00381-023-06155-0. Epub 2023 Sep 30.


Introduction: Intraoperative neurophysiology (ION) has been established over the past three decades as a valuable discipline to improve the safety of neurosurgical procedures with the main goal of reducing neurological morbidity. Neurosurgeons have substantially contributed to the development of this field not only by implementing the use and refinement of ION in the operating room but also by introducing novel techniques for both mapping and monitoring of neural pathways.

Methods: This review provides a personal perspective on the evolution of ION in a variety of pediatric neurosurgical procedures: from brain tumor to brainstem surgery, from spinal cord tumor to tethered cord surgery.

Results and discussion: The contribution of pediatric neurosurgeons is highlighted showing how our discipline has played a crucial role in promoting ION at the turn of the century. Finally, a view on novel ION techniques and their potential implications for pediatric neurosurgery will provide insights into the future of ION, further supporting the view of a functional, rather than merely anatomical, approach to pediatric neurosurgery.

Keywords: Cortico-cortical-evoked potentials; Intraoperative neurophysiology; Motor-evoked potentials; Neuromonitoring; Pediatric neurosurgery.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Evoked Potentials, Motor
  • Humans
  • Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods
  • Neurophysiology
  • Neurosurgery*
  • Neurosurgical Procedures / methods