In 72 patients followed for two years, the diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis was based on precise clinical signs without significant contribution from laboratory tests or radiologic signs. In six of the patients (8.3%) the bursitis was an isolated condition of unknown origin. Six other patients had rheumatoid arthritis without involvement of the ipsilateral hip joint. The remaining 60 patients (83.4%) had pathologic conditions of the adjacent areas, such as symptomatic lumbar spine arthrosis or ipsilateral hip damage, conditions that often mask the actual source of pain and disability. A rapid and prolonged improvement of the pain and disability caused by the bursitis was achieved in all 65 patients (90.3%) treated by local corticosteroid and anesthetic infiltrations: in 48 patients after one, in 13 after two and in 4 after three local treatments. Local corticosteroid infiltration proved to be the treatment of choice as well as a diagnostic test.